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As an aside, one question that sometimes gets brought up at this point in the conversation is, well, didn’t they only have two bombs to use? So wouldn’t a demonstration have meant that they would have only had another bomb left, perhaps not enough? This is only an issue if you consider the timescale to be as it was played out— e.g., using both bombs as soon as possible, in early August. Minnetonka Back Flap Bootie Girls InfantToddler AU7vRpQqv
(they originally thought the 24th, but it got pushed up), so one could imagine a situation in which things were delayed by a week or so and there would have been no real difference even if one bomb was expended on a demonstration. If they had been willing to wait a fewmore weeks, they could have turned the Little Boy bomb’s fuel into several “composite” core implosion bombs, as Oppenheimer had suggested to Groves after Trinity.I only bring the above up because people sometimes get confused about their weapon availability and the timing issue. They made choices on this that constrained their options. They had reasons for doing it, but it was not as if the way things happened was set in stone. (The invasion of Japan was not scheduled until November 1st.) 3

So, obviously,they didn’t choose to demonstrate the bomb first. But what if they had? I find this an interesting counterfactual to ponder. Would dropping the bomb in Tokyo Bayhave been militarily feasible? I suspect so. If they could drop the bombs on cities, they could probably drop them near cities. To put it another way: I have faith they could have figured out a way to do it operationally, because they were clever people. 4

But would it have caused the Japanese high command to surrender?Personally, I doubt it. Why? Because it’s not even clear that the actual atomic bombings were what caused the Japanese high command to surrender. There is a strong argument that it was the Soviet invasion of Manchuria that “shocked” them into their final capitulation. I don’t know if I completely buy that argument (this is thesubject of a future blog post), but I am convinced that the Soviet invasion was very important and disturbing to the Japanese with regards totheir long-termpolitical visions for the country. If an atomic bombdropped on an actual city was not, by itself, entirely enough, what good would seeing a bomb detonatedwithout destruction do? One cannot know,but I suspect it would not have done the trick.

The maximum size of the mushroom cloud of a 20 kiloton nuclear detonationin Tokyo Bay, as viewed from the roof of the Imperial Palace today, as visualized by NUKEMAP3D . Firebombed Tokyo of 1945 would have afforded a less skyscraper-cluttered view, obviously.

Of course, the Chicago scientists suspected that as well, but said it was necessary from a moral point of view. Sure, the Japanesemight not surrender, but then, at least, you can say you showed them what was coming first. As it was, we gave Under Armour GGS Infinity Girls Youth Q6Kod43
before dropping itonHiroshima.But here’s the question I come to next: could you demonstrate it, and then drop it on a city? That is, could the United States reallysay:“ we have made this apocalyptic weapon, unleashed the atom, and many other peril/hope clichés — and we have chosen not to use it to take life… yet. But if you don’t give in to our demands, we will unleash it on your people.” How could that not look like pure blackmail, pure terrorism?Could they then turn around and start killing people by the tens of thousands, having announced their capability to do so? Somehow I suspect the public relations angle would be almost impossible.By demonstrating it first, they would be implying that they knew that it was perhaps not just another weapon, not just another way to wage war. And that acknowledgment would mean that they would definitely be seen as crossing a line if they then went on to use it.

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London, H. (1982). Five myths of the television age.1, 81-89.

Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: "seeing is believing"; "a picture is worth a thousand words"; and "satisfaction is its own reward." London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He doesn't refer to any previous works on the topic; however, for a different point of view, one should refer to Joseph Patterson's "Television is Truth" (cited below). London's style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London's points, but does not explore their implications, leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.

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Summers, Montague.New York: Dutton, 1929.

"The first serious study in English of the Vampire, and kindred traditions from a general, as well as from a theological and philosophical point of view." Concludes that "it is hard to believe that a phenomenon which has so complete a hold over nations both old and young, in all parts of the world, at all times of history, has not some underlying and terrible truth however rare this may be in its more remarkable manifestations." The study covers appearance, characteristics, causes for, feeding habits of, and precautions to be taken against. Includes case histories, ancient accounts, an anthropological-type survey of various nations, asides on premature burial, necrophilia, and various perverse and antisocial acts. Contains a chapter on the vampire in literature and a bibliography of both true and fictitious vampires. Although useful as a source for broad historical background, this work does not fully address the issue of the vampire's cultural significance. For a review of recent cultural studies work on the figure of the vampire that argues that its current popularity, with both the cultures that represent and the post-modern critics who study it, resides in the vampire’s representation of “racial and sexual mixing,” see Shannon Winnubst, cited below.

Table 2

Special funding opportunities for open research, training, and advocacy.

Increasingly, funders are not only preferring but mandating open sharing of research. The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been a leader in this respect. In 2008, the NIH implemented a public access policy, requiring that all articles arising from NIH-funded projects be deposited in the National Library of Medicine’s open repository, PubMed Central, within one year of publication ( Rockey, 2012 ). NIH also requires that projects receiving $500K or more per year in direct costs include a data management plan that specifies how researchers will share their data ( National Institutes of Health, 2003 ). NIH intends to extend its data sharing policy to a broader segment of its portfolio in the near future. Since 2011, the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) has also encouraged sharing data, software, and other research outputs ( National Science Foundation, 2011 ). All NSF investigators are required to submit a plan, specifying data management and availability. In 2015, U.S. government agencies, including the NSF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and more announced plans to implement article and data sharing requirements in response to the White House Office of Science and Technology (OTSP) memo on public access ( Holdren, 2013 ). A crowd-sourced effort has collected information on these agency policies and continues to be updated ( DC Villain TX SE Mens po7BKlzIp

Several governmental agencies and charitable foundations around the world have implemented even stronger open access mandates. For example, the Wellcome Trust’s policy states that articles from funded projects must be made openly available within six months of publication, and where it provides publishing fee support, specifically requires publication under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( Wellcome Trust, 2016b ). The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) requires that all manuscripts reporting results produced using public funds must be made immediately available ( Vionic with Orthaheel Ngage1 Mens vmoVd2
). Similar policies are in place at CERN ( CERN, 2014 ), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( Lugz Empire HI Vt Womens 40OMQFtM
), and the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation ( Work America Mens Steel Toe Work Oxford LXwboDmB
)among others, and are increasingly covering data sharing. Funders recognize that certain types of data, such as clinical records, are sensitive and require special safeguards to permit sharing while protecting patient privacy. The Expert Advisory Group on Data Access (EAGDA) was recently established as a collaboration between the Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK, the Economic and Social Research Council, and the Medical Research Council to advise funders on best practices for creating data sharing policies for human research ( Wellcome Trust, 2016a ).

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